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William the Conqueror founded Warwick Castle in on his way to Yorkshire to deal with rebellion in the north. Medieval Warwick remained under the control of various Earls of Warwick , mostly of the Beauchamp family, becoming a walled town.
Warwick was not incorporated as a borough until During the English Civil War the town and castle were garrisoned for Parliament.
Under Sir Edward Peyto, it withstood a two-week siege by the Royalists. Later musters from to record a garrison of up to men under the command of Colonel William Purefoy and Major John Bridges.
The midth century saw the founding of Castle Hill Baptist Church , one of the oldest Baptist churches in the world. Much of the medieval town was destroyed in the Great Fire of Warwick which occurred in The fire burnt down much of the medieval church of St Mary ; both the chancel and the Beauchamp Chapel, however, survived, the latter having been built between and according to the wishes of Richard Beauchamp , Earl of Warwick, who had died in Rouen in A full-size reclining copper-gilt effigy of him lies upon his Purbeck marble tomb — a fine piece of medieval metalwork cast in Population growth has led to Warwick adjoining its larger neighbouring town, Leamington Spa , with which it forms a conurbation of some 95, inhabitants.
Warwickshire County Council remains based in Warwick itself. Warwick is represented in Parliament as part of the Warwick and Leamington constituency.
From the general election until the constituency elected a Conservative MP. The 17th-century antiquarian William Dugdale wrote that Warwick was "standing upon a rocky ascent from every side, and in a dry and fertile soil, having In the 19th century, the widespread industrialisation of England largely passed Warwick by.
Warwick Gates is a housing estate and business park in Heathcote, south-east Warwick, which was built in the late s. It is adjacent to Whitnash , a small town near Leamington Spa , and the village of Bishops Tachbrook.
The Tachbrook Park and Heathcote industrial estates are also nearby. In the early s another new estate, Chase Meadow, was built to the south-west of the town next to Warwick Racecourse.
Its amenities include a public house , a Chinese takeaway and a fish and chip shop. Warwick experiences the usual English maritime climate, marked by a narrow temperature range, mild winters and cool summers.
The nearest official Met Office weather station is at Wellesbourne, about 6 miles 10 km south of the town centre and at a similar elevation.
The absolute maximum temperature also the absolute maximum for the county of Warwickshire stands at During a typical year, the warmest day should reach Rainfall averages out at millimetres All averages refer to the — period.
At the UK census , Warwick had a population of 23, Before the census, populations were not directly recorded. However estimates can be based on other measures.
Historians suggest that in the town had a population of around 1, Indicators for the following centuries are sparse, but it is estimated that the population in the midth century was around 2, By the late 17th century this had increased to over 3, The census recorded that 5, people lived in Warwick.
Due to its proximity to north-south and east-west motorway routes, many companies have a head office in the town. Other businesses with head offices here include lingerie company Bravissimo.
In recent years several high-profile national and international companies have set up large office complexes in and around Warwick, notably National Grid plc and IBM.
Warwick Chamber of Trade helps to promote the town for visitors, residents and businesses. The town is also famous for Warwick Castle , whose construction began in The town centre is also known for its mixture of Tudor and 17th-century buildings.
Warwick is also known for Warwick Racecourse , near the west gate of the medieval town, which hosts several televised horse racing meetings a year.
Within the racecourse is a small golf course. Tolkien seems to have been very influenced by Warwick where he was married in the Catholic Church of Saint Mary Immaculate and by its Mercian connections: Warwick Racecourse is located just west of the town centre.
Adjacent to it is Racing Club Warwick F. The city has many long-established sports clubs, including Warwick Hockey Club , founded in For some years the school honoured the fact that King Edward the Confessor c.
Whatever the truth of the matter, there is no doubt that there has been a grammar school in the town of Warwick since before the Norman Conquest , and its successor, the present independent school, has been on its current site south of the River Avon since The nearest university is the University of Warwick , which is somewhat confusingly named after the county of Warwickshire, rather than the town, and is in fact situated several miles north of Warwick on the southern outskirts of Coventry.
Adding to the location confusion is the fact that Coventry is no longer in the county of Warwickshire, but instead is in the West Midlands , leading to the current situation where the university straddles both counties.
Warwick is on the M40 London-Birmingham motorway, connected to junctions 13, 14 and 15, and is on the A46 dual-carriageway trunk road positioned between Coventry and Stratford-upon-Avon.
Warwick has several council off-street car parks in the town. When Thomas de Beaumont, 6th Earl of Warwick died, the castle and lands passed to his sister, Margaret de Beaumont, 7th Countess of Warwick in her own right.
Her first husband, John Marshal, died soon after, and while she looked for a suitable husband, the castle was in the ownership of King Henry III of England.
When she married John du Plessis in December , the castle was returned to her. The two towers are also vaulted in stone on every storey.
The facade overlooking the river was designed as a symbol of the power and wealth of the Beauchamp earls and would have been "of minimal defensive value"; this followed a trend of 14th-century castles being more statements of power than designed exclusively for military use.
Neville was subsequently killed in the Battle of Barnet , fighting against the King in during the Wars of the Roses. George Plantagenet was executed in , and his lands passed onto his son, Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick ; however, Edward Plantagenet was only two when his father died, so his lands were taken in the custody of The Crown.
In the early s, King Richard III of England the other son-in-law of Neville instigated the construction of two gun towers, Bear and Clarence Towers, which were left unfinished on his death in ; with their own well and ovens, the towers were an independent stronghold from the rest of the castle, possibly in case of mutiny by the garrison.
With the advent of gunpowder, the position of Keeper of the Artillery was created in When antiquary John Leland visited the castle some time between and , he noted that:.
There is also a tower west-north-west, and through it a postern-gate of iron. All the principal lodgings of the castle with the hall and chapel lie on the south side of the castle, and here the king doth much cost in making foundations in the rocks to sustain that side of the castle, for great pieces fell out of the rocks that sustain it.
The castle, as well as lands associated with the earldom, was in Crown care from until , when they were granted to John Dudley with the second creation of the title the Earl of Warwick.
Warwick Castle had fallen into decay due to its age and neglect, and despite his remarks Dudley did not initiate any repairs to the castle. A timber building was erected in the castle for her to stay in, and Ambrose Dudley, 3rd Earl of Warwick , left the castle to the Queen during her visits.
In the 17th century the grounds were turned into a garden. Robert Greville, 2nd Baron Brooke , was a Parliamentarian , and Royalist forces laid siege to the castle.
Warwick Castle withstood the siege and was later used to hold prisoners taken by the Parliamentarians. The conversion of the castle coincided with a period of decline in the use of castles during the 15th and 16th centuries; many were either being abandoned or converted into comfortable residences for the gentry.
The conspirators involved awaited news of their plot in Dunchurch in Warwickshire. When they discovered the plot had failed they stole cavalry horses from the stables at Warwick Castle to help in their escape.
On 1 September Fulke Greville was murdered in Holborn by his manservant: Greville died from his wounds four weeks later. The garden walls were raised, bulwarks —barricades of beams and soil to mount artillery—were constructed and gunpowder and wheels for two cannons were obtained.
Greville was not in the castle at the time and the garrison was under the command of Sir Edward Peyto. William Dugdale , acting as a herald, called for the garrison commander to surrender the castle, but he was refused.
The besieging army opened fire on the castle, to little effect. The siege was lifted on 23 August when the garrison was relieved by the forces of Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex , and the Royalists were forced to retreat to Worcester.
A garrison was maintained in the castle complete with artillery and supplies from to , at its strongest it numbered soldiers. In the English Council of State ordered the castle governor to disband the garrison and hand over the castle to Robert Greville, 4th Baron Brooke.
Under Roger and William Hurlbutt, master carpenters of Warwick, extensive modernization of the interiors was undertaken, — To ensure that they would be in the latest taste, William was sent down to Dorset to make careful notes of the interiors recently finished at Kingston Lacy for Sir Ralph Bankes to designs by Sir Roger Pratt.
Francis Greville, 8th Baron Brooke , undertook a renewed programme of improvements to Warwick Castle and its grounds. The 8th Baron Brooke was also bestowed with the title Earl of Warwick in , the fourth creation of the title.
With the recreation of the title, the castle was back in the ownership of the earls of Warwick. Brown simplified the long narrow stretch by sweeping it into a lawn that dropped right to the riverbank, stopped at each end by bold clumps of native trees.
A serpentine drive gave an impression of greater distance between the front gates and the castle entrance. The view pleased me more than I can express; the river Avon tumbled down a cascade at the foot of it.
It is well laid out by one Brown who has set up on a few ideas of Kent and Mr Southcote. Then he has scooped out a little burrough in the massy walls of the place for his little self  and his children, which is hung with paper and printed linnen, and carved chimney-pieces, in the exact manner of Berkley-square or Argyle Buildings.
Greville commissioned Italian painter Antonio Canaletto to paint Warwick Castle in ,  while the castle grounds and gardens were undergoing landscaping by Brown.
Timothy Lightoler was responsible for the porch being extended and extra rooms added adjacent to it in — Although the Great Hall was gutted, the overall structure was unharmed.
Individuals had been visiting the castle since the end of the 17th century  and this grew in importance through the 19th century.
In Queen Victoria visited the 4th earl with great local celebrations. However, by it would appear the visitors were becoming a nuisance as the earl closed the castle to visitors, causing consternation in the town.
A local report stated, "One day last week eight American visitors who were staying at one of the principal hotels left somewhat hurriedly in consequence of their being unable to gain admission to the castle".
Tussauds performed extensive restorations to the castle and grounds. In 12 of the apartments open to tourists since the Tussauds Group takeover, a number of wax figures of historic individuals is presented.
The furniture in those rooms is said to be authentic to the period. In July of that year, Warwick Castle was sold to the Prestbury Group  but continued to be operated by Merlin under a renewable year lease.
The castle is protected against unauthorised change as a Scheduled Ancient Monument  in recognition of its status as a "nationally important" archaeological site or historic building,  and is a Grade I listed building  together with its boundary walls, stables, conservatory, mill and lodge.
The machine was built with drawings from the Danish living history museum Middelaldercentret , who, in , were the first to recreate a fully functioning trebuchet.
The trebuchet takes eight men half an hour to load and release. On 10 April a thatched boathouse caught fire shortly after a burning cannonball was fired by the trebuchet.
Warwick Castle is the subject of many ghost stories. At times during Summer , the castle offered its War of the Roses event with jousting and other action.
On certain dates in August, Dragon Slayer evenings were scheduled, with dining, a projection light show, pyrotechnics, fire jousting and live action stunts.
The current castle, built in stone during the reign of King Henry II, is on the same site as the earlier Norman motte-and-bailey castle.
A keep used to stand on the motte which is on the south west of the site, although most of the structure now dates from the post-medieval period. When Warwick Castle was rebuilt in the reign of King Henry II it had a new layout with the buildings against the curtain walls.
There was originally a drawbridge over the moat in the north east. In the centre of the north west wall is a gateway with Clarence and Bears towers on either side; this is a 15th-century addition to the fortifications of the castle.
These buildings include the great hall, the library, bedrooms, and the chapel. Over its years of history Warwick Castle has been owned by 36 different individuals, plus four periods as crown property under seven different monarchs.
It was the family seat of three separate creations of the Earls of Warwick, and has been a family home for members of the Beaumont, Beauchamp, Neville, Plantagenet, Dudley and Greville families.
The first creation of the Earldom specifically included the right of inheritance through the female line, so the castle three times had a woman or girl as the owner.
Eleven of the owners were under 20 when they inherited, including a girl aged two and a boy aged three. At least three owners died in battle, two were executed and one murdered.
Every century except the 21st has seen major building work or adaptations at the castle. Formal gardens belonging to Warwick Castle were first recorded in Its original name derived from the Knights Templar , who used to own a manor in Warwick.
Houses around the perimeter of the park were demolished and the land they stood on incorporated into the park. Both mills were subject to flooding.
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