Die Juventus Football Club S.p.A., kurz Juventus F.C., im deutschsprachigen Raum bekannt als Juventus Turin, ist ein gegründetes und seit an der . Juve bzw. JUVE steht als Abkürzung für: Juventus Turin, italienischer Fußballverein; SS Juve Stabia, italienischer Fußballverein; JuveCaserta Basket, . Juli Cristiano Ronaldo hat heute seinen ersten Tag bei Juventus Turin. der Wechsel nach Turin ein Rückschritt ist, es ist ein Schritt nach vorne". Juventus war in den vergangenen Jahren ja schon sehr nah dran. Tatsächlich wurde es bis zum heutigen Tag nur ein einziges Mal, im Prognose slowakei englandauch so genutzt. Sein Ziel ist ein Einsatz am 1. Die Ticketpreise für Heimspiele wurden bereits erhöht. Im Heysel-Stadion in Brüssel sahen dfb pokal 2019 auslosung italienische und englische Fans bereits vor Spielbeginn mit gegenseitigen Provokationen konfrontiert. Warum genau, dazu lässt sich keine eindeutige Erklärung finden.
The reasons for this are well summarised in the —12 House of Commons report on Football Governance:. Club owners are generally over optimistic about their management abilities and vision for a club.
With ample academic evidence that there is a clear correlation between squad wages and points won  - something which is obvious to owners - there is a natural tendency to borrow in the pursuit of success, although not all teams can be successful.
There are many examples of clubs where the directors true fans have "chased the dream" - gambling short-term investment or borrowing in the hope of long-term success.
The pressure on the directors of a club to invest, to sign a star player…is often immense from ordinary supporters. This may result in disproportionate spending relative to the income some clubs generate The vast majority of the overall European football debt is owed by only three of the biggest leagues: At the time of the introduction FFP, several Premier League clubs were known to be spending considerably above their income.
A similar train of events had affected another English club, Leeds United , some years previously. The problem of debt was not confined to the top division, with a number of clubs in the second tier of English football, the Championship seemingly gambling their futures in an effort to gain promotion into the Premiership.
After that, Premier League revenues can be used to pay off all the debts accrued. In the Italian Serie A, most clubs also reported a net loss over the previous season: Its city rival A.
Roma SpA, from its ultimate holding company Italpetroli, intermediate holding company "Roma " the holding company or the head of Roma larger group of companies, holding company of "ASR Real Estate S.
Barcelona also continued to spend heavily, although in recent years, the level had been slightly reduced. In the summer of , Villarreal failed to pay its players because the ceramics industry from which their owner Fernando Roig made his money was hit hard by the European credit crisis.
Construction of the " Nou Mestalla " was to be funded by the sale of the existing ground; however, two years into the project, work ground to a halt when the club could not find a buyer following the Spanish property crash.
In the lower Spanish leagues, at least six clubs, including former second-tier sides Real Sociedad , Celta de Vigo , and Levante , were in administration with more threatened as the recession worsened.
For a number of years, the clubs in the two other big European leagues, the French Ligue 1 and the German Bundesliga , had been subject to regulations not unlike the FFP rules.
Sanctions for non-compliance include transfer embargoes, reduced playing squads, demotion or even expulsion from the league. Despite lower incomes, French clubs do not carry the enormous debt of the English, Italian and Spanish leagues.
A number of French clubs have produced small profits over a number of years, concentrating on developing young players in modern academies, who then generate profits when sold.
At the end of each season, Bundesliga rules indicated that clubs must apply to the German Football Federation DFB for a licence to participate again the following year; only when the DFB, which has access to all transfer documents and accounts, are satisfied that there is no threat of insolvency does it provide approval.
Despite the strong economic governance in the German league, there were still some instances of clubs running into difficulties. In subsequent years, the club went through extensive restructuring to return to financial health, largely with young home-grown players.
Mainly as a result of their lower populations and smaller economies, these and other leagues such as the Belgian, Danish and Scandinavian leagues generate less revenue than those of the bigger nations, and there are currently no clubs in the Deloitte Top 20 from outside the big five leagues, although these are home to a number of extremely well run and successful clubs.
Porto make use of third-party deals and an extremely effective scouting network, particularly in South America, to purchase promising young players to develop and play in the first team in the near future before eventually selling them for a large profit.
In recent years, however, their dominance has been challenged by the emergence of other clubs such as FC Twente , meaning they can no longer rely on annual infusions of Champions League cash.
A leading councillor said that the move was necessary because of "the idiocy of big money and the game played between millionaires and football agents".
A report from PriceWaterhouseCoopers expressed deep concern at the fragile financial state of Scottish football.
However, because of mediocre performances in recent years, the SPL champions no longer qualify automatically for the Champions League group stages and are now largely confined to the much less lucrative Europa League.
There was also concern at the heavy debt being loaded onto some clubs as a result of new owners borrowing heavily to acquire the club and then using future earnings to pay the interest, a practice known as a leveraged buyout.
Liverpool found itself in a similar position after being purchased by Americans Tom Hicks and George Gillett in February Hicks and Gillett placed what was widely believed to be an unrealistic value on the club in the hope of making a vast profit however, for which they were severely criticised in the House of Commons as " asset strippers draining the club with their greed".
The leveraged buyout model is common for normal business ventures where — apart from the actual employees — the overall national impact of a firm collapsing is not particularly significant since other companies will fill the gap in the market.
LBOs have sometimes been defended by those using them as mechanisms to bring greater efficiency and financial discipline to target companies, although there are also examples where they have actually added to an existing problem of debt.
As with debt taken on in an attempt to improve the team, unexpected failure such as not qualifying for the Champions League can cause significant financial problems for clubs loaded with LBO debt.
For these "emotional stakeholders", their club is not a "normal business" but rather an intrinsic part of their lives and often of great social and cultural importance to the local community.
A number of clubs across Europe were historically in a position to spend substantially more than they earned as a result of the benevolence of their owners who made substantial financial gifts to the club, either by paying off existing debt, providing direct injections of cash, issuing extra shares or giving loans which are later written off.
Such a practice adversely affects the market by creating wage and transfer inflation as well encouraging other clubs to spend more than they can afford in an effort to remain competitive.
If you depend only on a rich benefactor however, then the financial model is too volatile. Despite broad approval across Europe, in early , the European Club Association succeeded in delaying the full introduction of the FFP Regulations to give clubs more time to adjust.
Also on the agenda was a proposal to limit squads to 25 players with unlimited under players per team at national and European level, as well as plans to reduce fees paid to agents.
Clubs also agreed that they will not be able to owe each other money, nor will they be allowed to compete in Europe if salaries have not been paid to players or non-playing staff.
He stated, "After only two years of existence, the European Club Association has managed, together with UEFA, to set measures that will shape the future of European club football into a more responsible business and ultimately a more sustainable one.
He said, "We have seen what the proposals are and we would meet the financial break even rules. We as Manchester United have always been run professionally and will continue to be run professionally.
Any money spent on infrastructure, training facilities or youth development will not be included. One of the major criticisms of FFP is the possibility of solidifying the so-called big clubs which generate largest revenue and profits, and can consequently spend more money on transfers.
The financial gulf between successful clubs in the top-tier of European league has had an impact domestically, most notably in the Premier League, where for approximately a dozen years from to there had been an almost complete dominance of the three major domestic English competitions by just three clubs Arsenal, Chelsea, and Manchester United.
During this period, the lack of competition for lucrative Champions League football in England from outside of those four clubs was frequently criticised.
More recently, however, the grip on the four top places in the Premier League that enable automatic entry into the Champions League competition by the incumbent "Big 4" clubs has been eroded somewhat in more recent seasons due to the rise in competitive performance of both Tottenham Hotspur and Manchester City and the relative decline of Liverpool, Arsenal and Manchester United.
Some forums have expressed concern at the potential risk that as clubs become ever desperate to raise "allowable" revenue which will positively affect their balance sheet, they will indulge in questionable U.
For example, many top clubs raise money from selling sponsorship for their playing as well as their away and training kit, and other titles like the "official logistics partner" Like Serveto for Barcelona or "official marine engine partner" Like Yanmar for Manchester United.
Several top clubs have similar deals. Other commentators pointed to actual and possible loopholes in the legislation itself; for example, up until the end of the —15 season, clubs will be allowed to exclude from the FFP calculation the wages of players signed before June as long as they can show an improved trend in their accounts.
In addition, there remains the issue of widely differing tax rates and social security costs to which the European leagues are subject, meaning that some clubs have to pay a player much higher gross wages in order for him to be left with the same net salary as if he belonged to a club in another country.
One area of concern for English clubs is the practice of third-party ownership. On 4 February , UEFA confirmed that it intended to ban third-party ownership of players, stating, "We think this should be the case all over the world, certainly all over Europe.
Another big issue for English clubs is the substantial payments made to the lower leagues in the football "pyramid" and to other charities out of their joint Sky TV deal.
These payments cannot be discounted from FFP. In Italy, where for some time there had been concern at the slow growth in football income and the lack of competitiveness among clubs — partly due to the inequality in TV income — pressure by a number of clubs finally led to the three biggest clubs — Internazionale, Milan and Juventus — agreeing to end the long-standing system whereby clubs negotiated their own TV rights.
Despite the effect the change had by reducing the spending power of his own club, Inter club president Massimo Moratti indicated that he was actually looking forward to the changes, saying, "Some thought that FFP was against owners like me, but I say that at last it means that I can stop putting money into football every day.
I hope that FFP allows us to experience football in a different way. In England, it was during the January transfer window that the most surprising business was done.
As transfer fee was considered as a purchase of a capital, the real effect of transfer fee was the amortisation of the transfer fee, which is proportionally to the contract length.
The club may lower the expense of amortisation by selling players and extending the player contract. This was due to the principle of amortisation — whereby a players transfer fee must be divided out between the number of years in his contract i.
A UEFA statement said,. UEFA is aware of the recent transfer activity across Europe and is confident that clubs are increasingly aware of the nature of its financial fair play regulations which require them to balance their books.
It must be noted, however, that the financial fair play rules do not prevent clubs from spending money on transfers themselves but rather require them to balance their books at the end of the season.
It is therefore difficult to comment on any individual situation without knowing the long-term strategy of each club. The clubs know the rules and also know that UEFA is fully committed to implementing them with rigour.
Although UEFA pointed to some improvements in the situation such as the 6. For me the sanctions need to be effective enough that people come into compliance with the system, otherwise clubs are going to become disillusioned rapidly.
This trend has to change very quickly to safeguard European football. We must end this negative spiral and gamble for success, these losses cannot continue.
In June , the English Football League announced that clubs in the divisions lower than the Premier League had also agreed in principle to adopt the FFP Regulations at their annual meeting.
Barnsley director Don Rowling said, "There are people that want to put money into their clubs to chase the dream but they will have to face the nightmare at a later date.
This will bring people into the game for the right reasons… now we have a model that is about being sustainable and being clever rather than how big your wallet is at a particular time" Acknowledging that some clubs would not abide by the rules, Rowling continued; "There is so much hype now from people including supporters who want you to chase this dream of getting into the Premiership.
You look at the support base of some clubs and it is very, very difficult to realise their ambitions, that is why there are people who want to buy a club and push it forward.
This is transformational for our business, it allows all of our clubs to work towards a business model that is sustainable. We are currently in a model that is not sustainable so we have clubs that go out of business or teeter on the edge.
Leagues One and Two of English football also made efforts to curb the spending of clubs by introducing salary capping. We live in a world where any decision made is challenged.
Europe the European Union legal system has created that and we see how far Europe has gone. The authority of the legal affairs is challengeable everywhere.
UEFA want to create a situation where clubs with deficits cannot play in the Champions League but I question whether they will be able to force it through.
Will they have the legal power to force that through today? Once they represent a force together, it will be difficult to fight against.
In July , Manchester City announced that the City of Manchester Stadium was to be called "Etihad Stadium" after signing a ten-year rights deal with their existing shirt sponsor, the Abu Dhabi -based airline Etihad Airways.
A number of football figures immediately questioned the validity of the deal because the chairman of Etihad Airways, a company around a third the size of British Airways  and has yet to make a profit since it was launched in , is Hamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the half brother of Manchester City owner Sheik Mansour.
Manchester City pointed out that the sponsorship deal included the development of the entire acre site that would surround the stadium with an expanded football academy and training ground, sports science centre, office and retail space and a 7,seat stadium for youth games.
As infrastructure, the cost of building the Etihad Campus does not count towards the FFP financial calculation because it is not considered to be football-related; however, any income generated will, and therefore will greatly assist Manchester City in meeting the UEFA requirements and providing a vital new revenue stream which could create millions a year for the club.
Manchester City are in the unique position of having acres of vacant land adjacent to their stadium and this potential was quickly recognised by Sheikh Mansour and Khaldoon Al Mubarak just weeks after taking over City in September If we see clubs that are looking for loopholes we will act.
You know where the problems are and you know you will have to confirm them. They give us the message that they can get around it by doing what they want.
The sponsorship cannot be doubled, tripled or quadrupled because that means it is better if we leave everybody free.
He [Michel Platini] is not stupid, he knows as well that some clubs will try to get around that and at the moment I believe they are studying, behind closed doors, how they can really check it.
That is where Financial Fair Play is at stake. Commentators, however, expressed their surprise that Manchester City had been able to generate such a large sum to re-brand an existing ground which they themselves did not even own.
I find that odd because it has never been done before. There is no benchmark that says you can rename your stadium and generate that amount of value.
At the Global Sports Forum in Barcelona in early March , it was revealed that UEFA had banned its senior executives from talking about the Manchester City situation for fear of prejudicing any future legal action against the club.
I am not allowed to talk about it. In March , the Council of Europe produced a report which described the deal as an "improper transaction",  recommending that, "UEFA should prohibit clubs from sponsoring themselves or using associated bodies to do so…UEFA will have to take care to ensure their financial fair play rules are not circumvented, and that clubs should not overpay for the rights they acquire.
Clubs will no doubt try to supplement their income if possible. They could for example call on sponsors to invest more so as to reduce or eliminate their deficits…care will have to be taken to prevent any circumvention of the financial fair play rules in this way.
At the beginning of , Manchester City manager Roberto Mancini , faced with a number of injuries and players absent at the African Cup of Nations , admitted for the first time that because of FFP he had been told by senior club management that he would be unable to buy any new players during the January transfer window unless he first moved on existing players, and perhaps not even then.
Across Europe, a number of other clubs confirmed that they were not planning to buy players outright during the transfer window, preferring to rely on loan deals.
Bundesliga CEO Christian Seifert said, "The measures for an improved cost control approved by the clubs in August have borne fruit.
The Bundesliga is as popular as never before with fans, sponsors and media partners. This was reduced to five clubs by the time the group stages of the two UEFA competitions commenced.
As many as 12 of these 13 clubs were covering their high net losses with re-capitalisation or decrease in shareholder capital. All of the biggest five leagues within the regions administered by UEFA i.
That means cutting costs and increasing revenues. Inter sporting director Marco Branca admitted that the club could no longer afford the fees paid in the past, declaring, "We have to organise our finances for the financial fair play rules in the next two years.
We are looking for younger players now with great talent who we can develop. There will no longer be patrons that can intervene. Until now people like Berlusconi and Moratti would be able to support us, but with the fair play it will no longer be possible.
On 20 March , it was announced that UEFA and the European Commission had signed a joint agreement intended to prevent clubs using the EU legal system to challenge the validity of FFP, for example by claiming that it conflicted with anti-competition legislation.
The European Union — who acknowledged the unique "specificity of sport" in the Treaty of Lisbon — policy on sport stated "good governance in sport is a condition for the autonomy and self-regulation of sport organisations".
The rules will protect the interests of individual clubs and players as well as football in Europe as a whole". UEFA general secretary Gianni Infantino said, "Let us be clear, this is not a new law … if anyone was thinking of filing some sort of complaint saying FFP somehow restricts European competition law they would have to file it to the Commission.
This is a big milestone in the enforcement of the break-even principle" . We then thought about the Financial Fair Play… so we had to accept it with weeping hearts.
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